Agriculture, in literal meaning, is known as the art or practice of cultivating soil and crops according to the soil and environment and raising it by various preparation levels.
There are mainly four types of agriculture- industrial, which is concerned with an enormous bulk amount of production, subsistence which is concerned about small production to only satisfies the livelihood of the farmer and his family.
As per the studies, around 85% of the Indian population is indulged in any form of agricultural activity. India is ranked in the second position in the agriculture industry worldwide.
In India about more than 50% of the population is employed in the agriculture sector to sustain their livelihood. Indian agriculture contributes approx. about 17-18% to India’s GDP.
On a global rank, India is ranked in 11th and 12th position for manufacturing agriculture products. India is indulged in producing many vegetables, fertilizers, plantation crops, spices, pulses and many more.
The farming industry in India is one of the major industries, followed by the food, fertilizer and dairy industries.
Majorly, the agriculture industries are curated and crafted in 17 significant sections like- fertilizers, farming, warehousing, agriculture materials and equipment’s, food processing industries, cold chains, seeds cultivation, fisheries and poultry industries, animal feeding and farming industries, floriculture, apiculture and sericulture and most importantly bio-agriculture.
In India, the tremendous significant culture is related to farming and trees with Vedas and Mythology. People here worship trees as a God.
As per India’s unique and variant geographical location, the soil and climate are more suitable for particular farming of crops and vegetables.
In history and present, Indian agriculture is an excellent inclination as an Indus Valley Civilization. In recent past years, India ranked in the agriculture sectors like fisheries, animal husbandry and forestry industries which almost also employed more than 50% of the Indian population.
In India, the agriculture industries are not only a source of handsome income to the population but is also a feeling of significant satisfaction and affection of the people.
India ranks highest in cultivating rice crops and India is the largest giant producer of rice after China. Other crops like wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute are cultivated at a higher production rate per the consumption percentage.
India’s most famous and favourable crop cultivating locations are Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
What are the Major Indian crops?
India is an Agrarian nation with immense diversity in cultivating different types of crops and other agricultural products. The principal crops are majorly classified into different three categories.
- Annual crops- These are such crops that take time to grow and get mature within a year. These crops are easy to cultivate: melon, maize, rice, wheat, cotton, cowpea, and groundnuts.
- Biennial crops- These are such crops that can grow and mature within a couple of years. Examples are cassava, pepper and ginger.
- Perennial crops- These crops take time to grow and get mature in more than two years. Examples are- other than annual and biennial crops.
The three main cropping seasons in India is known as the rabi, Kharif and Zaid. All these significant crops are cultivated as per the different suitable seasons and soils.
They are also harvested as per specific terms and periods. As India’s population is growing faster at the rate of two-thirds folds, the production of the main crops has also been increased.
Other than regular crops, India also cultivates and produces some medicinal crops of higher importance. These plants are grown and matured in different soil and environment.
These plants include Indian barberry, Bael, Isabgol, Atis, Kerth, Liquorice, Long pepper, Brahmi, Jatamansi, Madhumashini, Kalmegh, Katki, Giloe, Kokum, Senna, Baiberang, Aonla, Chandan, Ashwagandha, Chirata, Safed Musli and Tulsi.
These medicinal plants are essential and valuable to fight uncomplicated infections in our bodies for ages. These are essential and rich ingredients to the drug-producing pharmaceutical industries.
These therapeutic herbs are used in the development of different pharmacopeial, non-pharmacopeial & different synthetic drugs.
Not only in India, but these plants and herbs are also exports and traded globally. They are substantial to cure various diseases like cancer.
What are the problems faced by Indian Agriculture?
Though it looks like the Indian agriculture industries flourishes and a peerless rank in India and globally, a few problems are faced by them on a significant scale, which ultimately affects the production scale of the crops.
Significant issues are as follows-
- Urban and rural divisions among the populations- Most rural populations are engaged with the agriculture industries. Here the division of the population affects the crop production expansion and cost.
- Unsuitable investment for the betterment-As the rural population lacks knowledge of investment in delicate and professional equipment and other primary necessities, gradually affecting the production rate and prices. As they belong to the day-to-day income phase, they don’t cultivate a habit and method of savings and later using it for the better investment in either land or other accessories.
- Demonetization- Current past couple of years have been crucial with the withdrawal of various coins, notes and currencies, and some metals. These affected the seed and fertilizer selling and affected the annual consumption scale of the crops, coarsely affecting the farmer’s income.
- Outdated irrigated facilities- Major advanced irrigation methods are supremely are intricated with water-saving moto and supply sufficient and needy amount of water to the crops as per the environment. Lack of education and knowledge to adapt and adopt such methods affects the quality of the crop produced.
- Commercialization- It is a commercial consideration of agriculture. In India, some crops are grown and cultivated to export to other countries globally. Agriculture initially started this rule and method at the British Rule. Due to such, it affects the regular crop cultivations by lack of land, human resources, investment and skills.
What is the Importance of agriculture?
Various analyses and studies show that a significant northern Indian population survive and earn a livelihood by agriculture. Their everyday production helps proportionate their family livelihood.
Majorly, the farmers are known as one of the major groups of the employed population in India, working hard to increase the GDP. As our country is known to be a developing nation, this industry is also growing and expanding.
What is the Impact of agriculture on Indian Economy?
The agricultural sector in India is known to be a central backbone for the Indian Economy. 17% GDP rise in the current years is done by the agriculture economy and sector in India.
It is most impactful because two-thirds of the Indian population and significant states are engaged with the agriculture sector heavily. Due to expansion and higher cultivation, there is an overall large amount of consumption and export of the crops.
The significant farmer community belongs to the middle class or upper-middle-class community where they earn their livelihood only by the agriculture sector.
The sector has also expanded in providing and producing raw principal materials, which currently has a tremendous growth rate.
It is known as the industry of providing food, which is considered every surviving green industry in India. Other than the crops, the dairy industries, which are also one of the significant agricultural sectors, rank on a higher peach for its production and development.
Dairy industries are proved to be irradicating unemployment and poverty among the significant Indian population. This sector provides livestock and routine livelihood to almost 60% per cent of the Indian population.
It is one of the significant agri-business sectors in India, ranking highest in milk production globally.
What is the Importance of agriculture in Indian Economy?
The current status states that the agriculture sector is known to be one of the vital primary incomes in the growth of India. It is defined as one of the essential significant parts of the Indian Economy.
It is rank among the top two farm procedures globally. It is a significant share of the National income.
The industry’s primary source of employment and its contribution in the annual capital formation still holds a high peach in the list of other industries.
The industry also promotes and supply many raw materials to various industries. It forms a chain of production and reliability on the other industries to grow evenly and on a profitable account.
The crops like rice, wheat and coffee, used globally, are only majorly grown and cultivated here due to favourable Indian weather, soil, environment and rainfall. Such contributes to the markets of the industrial products and helps India to develop more.
It is also known as the significant earn by the foreign exchange. The export of various crops and seeds globally gives our nation a significant source of income.
Exploring all the importance of the agriculture sector to the Indian Economy, a takeaway notes that we should support and try to grow and expand the sector more.
Apart from all the problems currently faced by the industry, a powerful solution should be analysed and implemented to increase the national economy.