The agricultural sector of India has significantly advanced over time and has shown many changes in development and innovation.
Through the help of aspects like Globalization through with all the sectors around the world are working as one has helped a lot in bringing these changes.
With the help of globalization, there has been a connection possible with the outside world on a larger basis which has led to a lot of different opportunities in every sector and the agricultural sector has benefitted a lot from it.
The exports and import of goods and the introduction of innovations and technologies have all been made possible with the help of Globalization and its reach.
What do you mean by globalization?
The term “Globalization” depicts the integration of different countries on a global scale with the idea of increasing the country’s reach and also making new allies to work together so that the countries can progress with the help of each other.
The impact of Globalization has overall helped a lot of countries to become developed and India has also been able to take benefits from different sectors like the manufacturing sector, IT, innovation, pharmaceuticals, agriculture etc.
Globalization in the agricultural sector is nothing new. The process of import and export of materials has been going on since British rule.
The export Indigo, cotton and other raw materials for which India was widely known, was exported to different countries. Even the introduction of coffee in India was done through trade and import.
All these aspects show us that different ways of connecting through the world have always been existed by the methods that have now changed according to the geopolitical situations worldwide.
What are the salient features of Indian agriculture?
1. Subsistence agriculture:
This is a type of agriculture that has been in practice for hundreds of years. The farmers grow crops on their land and take what would be sufficient for their families. The rest is sold in the market for a price. In this way, they stay independent.
2. The pressure of population on agriculture:
The increase in the population of India and the pace of development has led to an increase in the loss of agricultural land. Due to this, even the forests are being cut to form agricultural land.
The ever-growing population has led to high demand for the product but it has been difficult to manage with the limited amount of growth and this is leading to different methods of bringing produce and some might not be ethical.
3. Importance of animals:
Animals have always been a major part of agricultural practices. Even though farmers now use the latest technology, in some of the remote areas, animals are still used majorly as a part of the operations required in the process of agriculture.
4. Monsoon dependent:
There are many reasons why agriculture depends on monsoon, the main reason is irrigation.
There is a water shortage in most of the agricultural areas and it is also a natural form of irrigation that is followed by the farmers. Many commercial crops need the monsoon season to flourish and it is very important for farmers.
Highlights of Indian Agriculture
1. Indian agriculture is based upon a wide variety of crops:
Depending upon the climatic conditions, the production varies. There are different crops found in different regions due to the change in soil and India has the benefit of a wide range of temperatures from coldest to one of the hottest climates so it’s an advantage.
2. Indian agriculture has predominance of food crops:
Since the demand for food crops is high, the production of food crops in India is high and more than two-thirds of the total cropped area is into food crop production.
3. In Indian agriculture, an insignificant place to given fodder crops:
This area of agriculture needs more land as there is less fodder available for the animals even though the population of livestock in India is one of the highest.
4. Indian agriculture has seasonal pattern:
Many seasonal crops are available in different phases of the year. Each crop needs a particular season to grow.
These salient features are responsible for the changes in the agricultural sector as the demand and supply is directly proportional to different aspects and also affect the Indian economy. So let’s discuss it.
Many schemes have been launched by the GOI to work upon the rise of agriculture in India. According to recent studies, the agricultural sector has shown a good contribution to the GDP despite the problems of Covid-19.
Several large-scale investments have been made for the farmers to promote their products. The “Make in India” campaign also includes the agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors to work upon.
On a current basis, the share of agriculture in the GDP of the nation has been 20% which has been the highest in the past 17 years.
There has been a progressive growth observed in the sector and a growth of 3.4% has been seen without any inflation currently in 2020-2021.
Due to some challenges faced by this sector in the past, the growth rate had been slowed down. However, it has contracted a 7.2% growth rate in the Gross Value Added (GVA) for agriculture.
The continuous supply of agricultural commodities, especially staples like rice, wheat, pulses and vegetables, also enabled food security.
The introduction of schemes like the National Food Security Act (NFSA) has helped in the boost of sales by the year 2020-21.
The schemes are meant to target small and marginalized farmers and also bring some labour reforms to give rise to the local farmers who sell their produce in the market directly.
All this is done to promote rural livelihood and develop it into a modern way of living by increasing the financial support provided to the farmers.
Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic
The pandemic has bought a lot of changes in every sector and the agricultural sector has been affected by it too. E.g. in the year 2020, the produce of Alphonso Mangoes in the state of Maharashtra was good but the demand had decreased due to the pandemic situation and the rules and regulations imposed by the government.
Many farmers saw losses in the supply of mangoes and also the overall restrictions and lockdowns made it difficult for people to buy mangoes like how they would normally.
This can be seen as one of the impacts on the agricultural industry. Although mangoes were exported on a great level, many farmers who dealt with them locally faced a lot of problems.
So here we can see globalization as a boon that has helped in managing the supply of products but not on a larger scale.
Globalization has overall shifted the focus of agriculture from traditional crops to cash crops and also promotes the growth of new varieties of produce that are meant for export only and are specially grown in some parts of the country.
This has helped a lot in increasing the overall economy and has led to a positive impact on the overall economy of India.
With the help of the new schemes set by the Government of India and the promotion of cash crops, India is set to excel further in the growth of this sector and the benefits of the economy through this sector.